NEW YORK -- If you hope to get a raise that finally feels like one, it helps to work in the right industry.
Pay for all kinds of workers should be rising by this point in the economy’s recovery. But five years after the Great Recession officially ended, raises remain sharply uneven across industries and, as a whole, have barely kept up with prices. Overall pay has been rising about 2 percent a year, roughly equal to inflation.
The best raises have gone to workers with specialized skills in a few booming industries -- energy, transportation, health care, technology. Those in retail or government have been less fortunate.
"If you’re in an in-demand field, with the right skill set, the chance of getting a raise is much higher," says Katie Bardaro, an economist at PayScale, a pay-tracking firm.
Typically in a recovery, raises in a few industries lead to raises in others as workers become confident enough to quit one job for another for more pay.
This time, the subpar recovery has slowed pay gains. Technology has played a role, too. It’s lifted pay for people who work, for example, with programs that sift data from your mobile devices so companies can pitch products matched to your interests. Yet workers in industries upended by the Internet, such as retailers left behind by e-commerce, have been hurt.
Here are industry standouts -- and laggards -- on pay:
Oil and gas
Fracking -- the pumping of liquid and sand into the ground to squeeze oil from rocks -- is opposed by environmentalists worried about pollution.
Though many temp workers would like full-time jobs with benefits, at least their pay is climbing. Robert Half International, a staffing firm, says higher pay for its temps forced it to raise the rates it charges employers by 2.6 percent in the first quarter, a point higher than its increase late last year.
Non-managers at computer-system design companies earned an average 4.1 percent more in April than a year ago, the latest in a string of increases beginning in 2012. Their pay hadn’t risen in the three prior years. Pay is strong for specialists in "Big Data" -- digital information that includes data culled from mobile devices to spot trends or build digital dossiers on people.
jobs -- is rising 2.3 percent annually. In previous recoveries, raises for these workers peaked at about 4 percent three or four years after they’d begun climbing. That raises at least the possibility that their pay will keep rising.
Among the industry laggards on pay:
Consumers are spending more, but that’s not helping workers at some stores who earn the minimum wage or little more. Though some cities and states have enacted higher minimums, the minimum in 28 states is no more than the federal mandate of $7.25 an hour.
Wages for liquor-store staff rose less than 1 percent in April from a year earlier, according to the BLS. At electronics stores, pay actually fell 4 percent. Perhaps some of their money was going to workers at Internet retailers: Their pay jumped 3 percent.